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Yee WX,  Barnes G, Lavender H, Tang CM, Lavender H (Mar 2023). Meningococcal factor H-binding protein: implications for disease susceptibility, virulence, and vaccines. Trends Microbiol S0966-842X(23)00059-8 doi;10.1016/j.tim.2023.02.011.



Yee WX, Tang CM, Lavender H (Oct 2022). Pathogenic Neisseria Bind the Complement Protein CFHR5 via Outer Membrane Porins. Infect. Immun. e0037722. doi: 10.1128/iai.00377-22. 

Jones RA, Yee, WX, Mader, K, Tang CM, Cehovin A (Jun 2022). Markerless gene editing in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Microbiology (Reading). 168(6). doi: 10.1099/mic.0.001201.

Pilla G, Arcari G, Tang CM, Carattoli A (Jun 2022). Virulence plasmid pINV as a genetic signature for Shigella flexneri phylogeny. Microb. Genom. 8(6). doi: 10.1099/mgen.0.000846.

Baerentsen R, Tang CM, Exley R (Jun 2022). Et tu, Neisseria? Conflicts of Interest Between Neisseria Species. Front. Cell Infect. Microbiol. 12:913292. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2022.913292.

Martyn JE, Pilla G, Hollingshead S, Winther KS, Lea S, McVicker G, Tang CM (2022). Maintenance of the Shigella sonnei virulence plasmid is dependent on its repertoire and amino acid sequence of toxin:antitoxin systems. J Bacteriol. JB0051921. doi: 10.1128/JB.00519-21. Online ahead of print.



Su Y, Li J, Zhang W, Ni J, Huang R, Wang Z, Cheng S, Wang Y, Tian , Zhou Q, Lin D, Wu W, Tang CM, Liu X, Lu J, Yao YF. (Oct 21). Methylation of PhoP by CheR Regulates Salmonella Virulence. mBio. 12(5):e0209921.

Earle SG, Lobanovska M, Lavender H, Tang C, Exley RM, Ramos-Sevillano E, Browning DF, Kostiou V, Harrison OB, Bratcher HB, Varani G, Tang CN, Wilson DJ, Maiden MCJ. (Oct 2021). Genome-wide association studies reveal the role of polymorphisms affecting factor H binding protein expression in host invasion by Neisseria meningitidis. PLoS Pathog.17(10):e1009992.

Pilla G, Wu T, Grassel C, Moon J, Foulke-Abel J, Tang CM, Barry EM. (Aug 2021). Evaluation of a Live Attenuated S. sonnei Vaccine Strain in the Human Enteroid Model. Pathogens 25;10(9):1079. doi: 10.3390/pathogens10091079.

Custodio R, Ford RM, Ellison CJ, Liu G, Mickute G, Tang CM, Exley RM. (Jul 2021). Type VI secretion system killing by commensal Neisseria is influenced by expression of type four pili eLife 10:e63755.


Liu G, Beaton SE, Grieve AG, Evan R, Rogers M, Strisovsky K, Armstrong FA, Freeman M, Exley RM, Tang CM (Apr 2020). Bacterial Rhomboid Proteases Mediate Quality Control of Orphan Membrane Proteins. EMBO J e102922. doi: 10.15252/embj.2019102922.

Custodio R, Johnson E, Liu G, Tang CM, Exley RM. (Mar 2020). Commensal Neisseria cinerea impairs Neisseria meningitidis microcolony development and reduces pathogen colonisation of epithelial cells. PLoS Pathog. 16(3): e1008372.  

Harrison OB, Cehovin A, Skett J, Jolley KA, Massari P, Genco CA, Tang CM, Maiden MCJ (Mar 2020). Neisseria gonorrhoeae Population Genomics: Use of the Gonococcal Core Genome to Improve Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance. J Infect Dis. pii: jiaa002. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiaa002.

Cehovin A, Jolley KA, Maiden MCJ, Harrison OB, Tang CM (Feb 2020). Association of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Plasmids With Distinct Lineages and The Economic Status of Their Country of Origin. J Infect Dis pii: jiaa003. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiaa003.

Lawarée E, Jankevicius G, Cooper C, Ahel I, Uphoff S, Tang CM (Feb 2020). DNA ADP-Ribosylation Stalls Replication and Is Reversed by RecF-Mediated Homologous Recombination and Nucleotide Excision Repair. Cell Rep 30(5): 1373-1384


Lobanovska M; Tang CM; Exley RM (Jul 2019). The contribution of σ70 and σN factors to expression of class II pilE in Neisseria meningitidis. J Bacteriol pii: JB.00170-19. doi: 10.1128/JB.00170-19.

Liu G; Pilla G; Tang CM (May 2019). Shigella host:pathogen interactions: keeping bacteria in the loop. Cell Microbiol. 2019 May 28: e13062. doi: 10.1111/cmi.13062

Hollingshead S; Tang CM (2019). An Overview of Neisseria meningitidis. Methods Mol Biol. 1969: 1-6.

McVicker G; Hollingshead S; Pilla G; Tang CM (Feb 2019). Maintenance of the virulence plasmid in Shigella flexneri is influenced by Lon and two functional partitioning systems. Mol. Microbiol doi: 10.1111/mmi.14225.


Ramos-Sevillano E; Wade WG; Mann A; Gilbert A; Lambkin-Williams R; Killingley B; Nguyen-Van-Tam JS; Tang CM. (Nov 2018). The Effect of Influenza Virus on the Human Oropharyngeal Microbiome. Clin Infect Dis doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy821.

Pilla G; Tang CM (Aug 2018). Going around in circles: virulence plasmids in enteric pathogens. Nat Rev Microbiol 16(8):484-495

Cehovin A; Harrison OB; Lewis SB; Ward PN; Ngetsa C; Graham SM; Sanders EJ; Maiden MCJ; Tang CM. (Jul 2018). Identification of Novel Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Lineages Harbouring Resistance Plasmids in Coastal Kenya. J Infect Dis. 218(5):801-808

Hollingshead S; Jongerius I; Exley RM; Johnson S; Lea SM; Tang CM (Mar 2018). Structure-based design of chimeric antigens for multivalent protein vaccines. Nat. Commun. 9(1):1051


Pilla G; McVicker G; Tang CM (Sep 2017). Genetic plasticity of the Shigella virulence plasmid is mediated by intra- and inter-molecular events between insertion sequences. PLoS Genet. 13(9): e1007014

Lavender H; Poncin K; Tang CM (Jul 2017). Neisseria cinerea expresses a functional factor H binding protein which is recognised by immune responses elicited by meningococcal vaccines. Infect Immun. Epub (ahead of print)


McVicker G; Tang CM. (Nov 2016). Deletion of toxin-antitoxin systems in the evolution of Shigella sonnei as a host-adapted pathogen. Nat. Microbiol. 2:16204 

Harrison OB; Clemence M; Dillard JP; Tang CM; Trees D; Grad YH; Maiden MC. (Aug 2016). Genomic analyses of Neisseria gonorrhoeae reveal an association of the gonococcal genetic island with antimicrobioal resistance. J Infect pii: S0163-4453(16)30214 - 16

Loh E; Lavender H; Tan F; Tracy A; Tang CM. (Aug 2016). Thermoregulation of Meningococcal fHbp, an Important Virulence Factor and Vaccine Antigen, Is Mediated by Anti-ribosomal Binding Site Sequences in the Open Reading Frame. PLoS Pathog. 12(8): e1005794

Barnwal RP; Loh E; Godin KS; Yip J; Lavender H; Tang CM; Varani G. (Jul 2016). Structure and mechanism of a molecular rheostat, an RNA thermometer that modulates immune evasion by Neisseria meningitidis. Nuc Acid Res. 44(19):9426-9437

McDowell MA; Marcoux J; McVicker G; Johnson S; Fong YH; Stevens R; Bowman LA; Degiacomi MT; Yan J; Wise A; Friede ME; Benesch JL; Deane JE; Tang CM; Robinson CV; Lea SM. (Feb 2016). Characterisation of Shigella Spa33 and Themotoga Flim/N reveals a new model for C-ring assembly in T3SS. Mol Microbiol. 99(4):749-66

Wörmann ME; Horien CL; Johnson E; Liu G; Aho E; Tang CM, Exley RM. (Jan 2016). Neisseria cinerea isolates can adhere to human epithelial cells by Type IV pilus-independent mechanisms. Microbiology. 162: 487-502


Hill DM; Lucidarme J; Gray SJ; Newbold LS; Ure R; Brehony C; Harrison OB; Bray JE; Jolley KA; Bratcher HB; Parkhill J; Tang CM; Borrow R; Maiden MC. (Dec 2015). Genomic epidemiology of age-associated meningococcal lineages in national surveillance: an observational cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis.15(12):1420-8

Tan FY; Tang CM; Exley RM. (Jul 2015). Sugar coating: bacterial protein gylcosylaton and host-microbe interactions. Trends Biochem Sci. 40(7):342-50

Liu G; Tang CM; Exley RM.(Jul 2015) .Non-pathogenic Neisseria: members of an abundant, multi-habitat, diverse genus. Microbiology. 161(7):1297-312

Tan FY; Wörmann ME; Loh E; Tang CM; Exley RM. (May 2015). Characterization of a novel antisense RNA in the major pilin locus of Neisseria meningitidis influencing antigenic variation. J Bacteriol. 197(10):1757-68

van der Veen S; Tang CM. (Feb 2015). The BER necessities: the repair of DNA damage in human-adapted bacterial pathogens. Nat Rev Microbiol. 13(2):83-94


Caesar JJ; Lavender H; Ward PN; Exley RM; Eaton J; Chittock E; Malik TH; Goiecoechea De Jorge E; Pickering MC; Tang CM; Lea SM. (Dec 2014). Competition between antagonistic complement factors for a single protein on N. meningitidis rules disease susceptibility. Elife.

Lam O; Wheeler J; Tang CM. (2014). Thermal control of virulence factors in bacteria: a hot topic. Virulence. 5(8):852-62

Vergara-Irigaray M; Fookes MC; Thomson NR; Tang CM. (Jun 2014). RNA-seq analysis of the influence of anaerobiosis and FNR on Shigella flexneri. BMC Genomics. 15:438

Wörmann ME; Horien CL; Bennett JS; Jolley KA; Maiden MC; Tang CM; Aho EL; Exley RM. (Apr 2014). Sequence, distribution and chromosomal context of class I and class II pilin genes of Neisseria meningitidis identified in whole genome sequences. BMC Genomics. 15:253

Tsolakos N; Brookes C; Taylor S; Gorringe A; Tang CM; Feavers IM; Wheeler JX. (Apr 2014). Identification of vaccine antigens using integrated proteomic analyses of surface immunogens from serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis. J Proteomics. 101:63-76.

van der Veen S; Johnson S; Jongerius I; Malik T; Genovese A; Santini L; Staunton D; Ufret-Vincenty RL; Pickering MC; Lea SM; Tang CM. (Mar 2014). Nonfunctional variant 3 factor H binding proteins as meningococcal vaccine candidates. Infect Immun. 82(3):1157-63

Faleri A; Santini L; Brier S; Pansegrau W; Lo Surdo P; Scarselli M; Buricchi F; Volpini G; Genovese A; van der Veen S; Lea S; Tang CM; Savino S; Pizza M; Finco O, Norais N; Masignani V. (Apr2014). Two cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies recognize overlapping epitopes on Neisseria meningitidis factor H binding protein but have different functional properties. FASEB J. 28(4):1644-53


Loh E; Kugelberg E; Tracy A; Zhang Q; Gollan B; Ewles H; Chalmers R; Pelicic V; Tang CM. (Oct 2013). Temperature triggers immune evasion by Neisseria meningitidis. Nature. 502(7470):237-40

Jongerius I;, Lavender H; Tan L; Ruivo N; Exley RM; Caesar JJ; Lea SM; Johnson S; Tang CM. (Aug 2013). Distinct binding and immunogenic properties of the gonococcal homologue of meningococcal factor h binding protein. PLoS Pathog. 9(8):e100352

Malito E; Faleri A; Lo Surdo P; Veggi D; Maruggi G; Grassi E; Cartocci E; Bertoldi I; Genovese A; Santini L; Romagnoli G; Borgogni E; Brier S; Lo Passo C; Domina M; Castellino F; Felici F; van der Veen S; Johnson S; Lea SM; Tang CM; Pizza M; Savino S; Norais N; Rappuoli R; Bottomley MJ; Masignani V. (Feb 2013). Defining a protective epitope on factor H binding protein, a key meningococcal virulence factor and vaccine antigen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110(9):3304-9


Piet JR; Brouwer MC; Exley R; van der Veen S; van de Beek D; van der Ende A.  (2012). Meningococcal Factor H Binding Protein fHbpd184 Polymorphism Influences Clinical Course of Meningococcal Meningitis. PLoS One. 7(10):e47973

Abrusci P; Vergara-Irigaray M; Johnson S; Beeby MD; Hendrixson DR; Roversi P; Friede ME; Deane JE; Jensen GJ; Tang CM; Lea SM. (Dec 2012). Architecture of the major component of the type III secretion system export apparatus. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 20(1):99-104

Johnson S; Tan L; van der Veen S; Caesar J; Goicoechea De Jorge E; Harding RJ; Bai X; Exley RM; Ward PN; Ruivo N; Trivedi K; Cumber E; Jones R; Newham L; Staunton D; Ufret-Vincenty R; Borrow R; Pickering MC; Lea SM; Tang CM. (Oct 2012). Design and Evaluation of Meningococcal Vaccines through Structure-Based Modification of Host and Pathogen Molecules. PLoS Pathog. 8(10):e1002981 

Lu D, Silhan J; MacDonald JT; Carpenter EP; Jensen K; Tang CM*; Baldwin GS*; Freemont PS*. (Oct 2012). Structural basis for the recognition and cleavage of abasic DNA in Neisseria meningitidis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 109(42):16852-7 (*joint corresponding authors)

Teo I; Toms SM; Marteyn B; Barata TS; Simpson P; Johnston KA; Schnupf P; Puhar A; Bell T; Tang C; Zloh M; Matthews S; Rendle PM; Sansonetti PJ; Shaunak S.  (Sep 2012). Preventing acute gut wall damage in infectious diarrhoeas with glycosylated dendrimers. EMBO Mol Med. 4(9):866-81

Quattroni P; Li Y; Lucchesi D; Lucas S; Hood DW; Herrmann M; Gabius HJ; Tang CM; Exley RM. (Jul 2012). Galectin-3 binds Neisseria meningitidis and increases interaction with phagocytic cells. Cell Microbiol. 14(11):1657-75 

Nagorska K; Silhan J; Li Y; Pelicic V; Freemont PS; Baldwin GS; Tang CM. (Mar 2012). A network of enzymes involved in repair of oxidative DNA damage in Neisseria meningitidis. Mol Microbiol. 83:1064-1079. DOI.

Silhan J; Nagorska K; Zhao Q; Jensen K; Freemont PS*; Tang CM*; Baldwin GS*. (1 Mar 2012). Specialization of an Exonuclease III family enzyme in the repair of 3' DNA lesions during base excision repair in the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis. Nucleic Acids Res. 40:2065-2075. DOI. (*joint corresponding authors)


Tala A; Monaco C; Nagorska K; Exley RM; Corbett A; Zychlinsky A; Alifano P; Tang CM. (1 Sep 2011). Glutamate utilization promotes meningococcal survival in vivo through avoidance of the neutrophil oxidative burst.  Mol Microbiol. 81:1330-1342. Author weblink DOI.

Wong HE; Hey A; Tang CM; Kroll JS; Langford PR. (Jul 2011). Meningitis: latest developments. Future Microbiol. 6:721-723. DOI.

Quattroni P; Exley RM; Tang CM. (Aug 2011). New insights into pathogen recognition. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 9:577-579. DOI.

Trivedi K; Tang CM; Exley RM. (Sep 2011). Mechanisms of meningococcal colonisation. Trends Microbiol. 19:456-463. DOI.

Talà A; Monaco C; Nagorska K; Exley RM; Corbett A; Zychlinsky A; Alifano P; Tang CM. (Sep 2011). Glutamate utilization promotes meningococcal survival in vivo through avoidance of the neutrophil oxidative burst. Mol Microbiol. 81:1330-1342. DOI.

Lucidarme J; Tan L; Exley RM; Findlow J; Borrow R; Tang CM. (Jun 2011). Characterization of Neisseria meningitidis isolates that do not express the virulence factor and vaccine antigen factor H binding protein. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 18:1002-1014. DOI.


Zhang Q; Li Y; Tang CM. (29 Oct 2010). The role of the exopolyphosphatase PPX in avoidance by Neisseria meningitidis of complement-mediated killing. J Biol Chem. 285:34259-34268. DOI.

Sutherland TC; Quattroni P; Exley RM; Tang CM. (Sep 2010). Transcellular passage of Neisseria meningitidis across a polarized respiratory epithelium. Infect Immun. 78:3832-3847. DOI.

Cehovin A; Winterbotham M; Lucidarme J; Borrow R; Tang CM; Exley RM*; Pelicic V*. (5 Jul 2010). Sequence conservation of pilus subunits in Neisseria meningitidis. Vaccine. 28:4817-4826. DOI. (*joint corresponding authors)

Marteyn B; West NP; Browning DF; Cole JA; Shaw JG; Palm F; Mounier J; Prévost MC; Sansonetti P; Tang CM. (20 May 2010). Modulation of Shigella virulence in response to available oxygen in vivo. Nature. 465:355-358. DOI.

Kugelberg E; Gollan B; Farrance C; Bratcher H; Lucidarme J; Ibarz-Pavón AB; Maiden MC; Borrow R; Tang CM. (2010). The influence of IS1301 in the capsule biosynthesis locus on meningococcal carriage and disease. PLoS One. 5:e9413. DOI.

Tsolakos N; Lie K; Bolstad K; Maslen S; Kristiansen PA; Høiby EA; Wallington A; Vipond C; Skehel M; Tang CM; Feavers IM; Wedege E; Wheeler JX. (19 Apr 2010). Characterization of meningococcal serogroup B outer membrane vesicle vaccines from strain 44/76 after growth in different media. Vaccine. 28:3211-3218. DOI.

Chaudhuri RR; Sebaihia M; Hobman JL; Webber MA; Leyton DL; Goldberg MD; Cunningham AF; Scott-Tucker A; Ferguson PR; Thomas CM; Frankel G; Tang CM; Dudley EG; Roberts IS; Rasko DA; Pallen MJ; Parkhill J; Nataro JP; Thomson NR; Henderson IR. (2010). Complete genome sequence and comparative metabolic profiling of the prototypical enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strain 042. PLoS One. 5:e8801. DOI.


Lucidarme J; Comanducci M; Findlow J; Gray SJ; Kaczmarski EB; Guiver M; Kugelberg E; Vallely PJ; Oster P; Pizza M; Bambini S; Muzzi A; Tang CM; Borrow R. (1 Nov 2009). Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, Sequence Type (ST), and Genomic Presence of IS1301 in Group B Meningococcal ST269 Clonal Complex Isolates from England and Wales. J Clin Microbiol. 47:3577-3585. Author weblink DOI.

Heurlier K; Vendeville A; Halliday N; Green A; Winzer K; Tang CM; Hardie KR. (15 Aug 2009). Growth Deficiencies of Neisseria meningitidis pfs and luxS Mutants Are Not Due to Inactivation of Quorum Sensing (vol 191, pg 1293, 2009). J Bacteriol. 191:5332-5332. Author weblink.

Lo H; Tang CM; Exley RM. (1 Jul 2009). Mechanisms of avoidance of host immunity by Neisseria meningitidis and its effect on vaccine development. Lancet Infect Dis. 9:418-427. Author weblink.

Ray K; Marteyn B; Sansonetti PJ; Tang CM. (1 May 2009). Life on the inside: the intracellular lifestyle of cytosolic bacteria. Nat Rev Microbiol. 7:333-340. Author weblink DOI.

Li Y; Wooldridge KG; Javed MA; Tang CM; Ala'aldeen DA. (14 Apr 2009). Secreted proteins of Neisseria meningitidis protect mice against infection. Vaccine. 27:2320-2325. DOI.

Schneider MC; Prosser BE; Caesar JJE; Kugelberg E; Li S; Zhang Q; Quoraishi S; Lovett JE; Deane JE; Sim RB; Roversi P; Johnson S; Tang CM*; Lea SM*. (16 Apr 2009). Neisseria meningitidis recruits factor H using protein mimicry of host carbohydrates. Nature. 458:890-U9. Author weblink DOI. (*joint corresponding authors)

Exley RM; Sim R; Goodwin L; Winterbotham M; Schneider MC; Read RC; Tang CM. (1 Jan 2009). Identification of Meningococcal Genes Necessary for Colonization of Human Upper Airway Tissue. Infect Immun. 77:45-51. Author weblink DOI.

Heurlier K; Vendeville A; Halliday N; Green A; Winzer K; Tang CM; Hardie KR. (15 Feb 2009). Growth Deficiencies of Neisseria meningitidis pfs and luxS Mutants Are Not Due to Inactivation of Quorum Sensing. J Bacteriol. 191:1293-1302. Author weblink DOI.


Kugelberg E; Gollan B; Tang CM. (30 Dec 2008). Mechanisms in Neisseria meningitidis for resistance against complement-mediated killing. Vaccine. 26 Suppl 8:I34-I39.

Jose Uria M; Zhang Q; Li Y; Chan A; Exley RM; Gollan B; Chan H; Feavers I; Yarwood A; Abad R; Borrow R; Fleck RA; Mulloy B; Vazquez JA; Tang CM. (9 Jun 2008). A generic mechanism in Neisseria meningitidis for enhanced resistance against bactericidal antibodies. J Exp Med. 205:1423-1434. Author weblink DOI.


Schneider MC; Exley RM; Ram S; Sim RB; Tang CM. (1 May 2007). Interactions between Neisseria meningitidis and the complement system. Trends Microbiol. 15:233-240. Author weblink DOI.

Carpenter E; Corbett A; Thomson H; Adacha J; Jensen K; Bergeron J; Kasampalidis I; Exley R; et alWinterbotham M; Tang C*; Baldwin GS*; Freemont P*. (Mar 2007). AP endonuclease paralogues with distinct activities in DNA repair and bacterial pathogenesis. EMBO Journal. 5, 26:1363-1372. (*joint corresponding authors)

Smith H; Tang CM; Exley RM. (Sep 2007). Effect of host lactate on gonococci and meningococci: new concepts on the role of metabolites in pathogenicity. Infect Immun. 75:4190-4198. DOI.

Exley RM; Wu H; Shaw J; Schneider MC; Smith H; Jerse AE; Tang CM. (Mar 2007). Lactate acquisition promotes successful colonization of the murine genital tract by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Infect Immun. 75:1318-1324. DOI.


Mazurkiewicz P; Tang CM; Boone C; Holden DW. (Dec 2006). Signature-tagged mutagenesis: barcoding mutants for genome-wide screens. Nat Rev Genet. 7:929-939. DOI.

Li Y; Zhang Q; Winterbotham M; Mowe E; Gorringe A; Tang CM. (Nov 2006). Immunization with live Neisseria lactamica protects mice against meningococcal challenge and can elicit serum bactericidal antibodies. Infect Immun. 74:6348-6355. DOI.

Schneider MC; Exley RM; Chan H; Feavers I; Kang YH; Sim RB; Tang CM. (15 Jun 2006). Functional significance of factor H binding to Neisseria meningitidis. J Immunol. 176:7566-7575.


Exley RM; Shaw J; Mowe E; Sun YH; West NP; Williamson M; Botto M; Smith H; et alTang CM. (16 May 2005). Available carbon source influences the resistance of Neisseria meningitidis against complement. J Exp Med. 201:1637-1645. DOI.

Vendeville A; Winzer K; Heurlier K; Tang CM; Hardie KR. (May 2005). Making 'sense' of metabolism: autoinducer-2, LuxS and pathogenic bacteria. Nat Rev Microbiol. 3:383-396. DOI.

West NP; Sansonetti P; Mounier J; Exley RM; Parsot C; Guadagnini S; Prévost MC; Prochnicka-Chalufour A; et alDelepierre M; Tanguy M; Tang CM. (25 Feb 2005). Optimization of viruence functions through glucosylation of Shigella LPS. Science. 307:1313-1317. DOI.